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Protection of Electrical Power Systems

Locations & Dates:

Date: 27 Aug - 7 Sep 2017
Ref: L3
Location: Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur)
Fees: 6750 

MERC Training Center reserves the right to alter dates, content, venue and trainer with a reasonable notice time.
One extra free place for every 2 paid nominees

Protection of Electrical Power Systems

Power system protection is an essential component of all forms of electrical power systems. In practice, protective relaying is directly associated with security of supply, the reduction of damage to faulted plant, cost of energy and, most importantly, all aspects of safety. The subject is unique in requiring knowledge of all topics broadly classified under the title of electrical power engineering, including generation, utilization, maintenance and the transmission of electrical power. As a consequence it enhances an engineer’s working knowledge and becomes an important asset for power system planning, operation and management .
The course focuses attention on the fundaments of the subject and illustrates the protection philosophies in common use by reference to the application of modern multi-functional microprocessor relays to practical situations illustrated by case studies .

Upon Completion of this Course, participants will have knowledge about :

  • The need for protection
  • An overview of power system fault analysis
  • Protection fundamentals
  • Relay transducers, both current and future
  • System grounding principles
  • Over current earth fault protection
  • Coordination principles
  • Transformer protection
  • Generator protection
  • Bus protection
  • Motor protection
  • Line and feeder protection
  • Principles of relay application

The aim of the course is to update the working knowledge of practicing protection engineers and senior technicians as well as those in closely related branches of electrical power engineering responsible for specification, installation, inspection, and maintenance and commissioning of electrical plant

Training Methodology :
The opening sessions of the course deal with the fundamentals of protection equipment, basic technologies used and a resume of fault analysis. The course then goes on to describe in detail various applications associated with the different types of apparatus used in the electrical power industry. This is followed by a guide to “good practice” drawn from many practical situations experienced by practicing engineers and manufacturers of plant .


  • Fundamentals and Fault Analysis
  • Introduction to power system protection
  • Power system fault analysis
  • Phase faults
  • Earth faults
  • Manual calculation
  • Use of software
  • Case study
  • Protection fundamentals
  • Definitions and terminology
  • Unit and non-unit systems
  • Wrap up session

Transducers and Over current Schemes

  • Transducers
  • Current transformer (CT) equivalent circuit
  • CT specification
  • CT errors
  • CT characteristics
  • Effect of CT burden
  • Over current relays of control systems
  • The modern relay and functions provided
  • Characteristics
  • Directional schemes
  • High and low set instantaneous relays
  • Application to earth faults
  • Principles of coordination
  • Case studies and tutorials
  • Wrap up session

Unit Protection 1

  • Transformer protection
  • Typical transformer faults
  • Protection of small transformers
  • Biased differential
  • High impedance differential
  • Restricted earth leakage
  • Buchholz and winding temperature
  • Additional earth fault
  • Use of earthling transformer
  • Relay settings for modern multi-functional relays
  • Generator and generator unit
  • Schematic layout of plant
  • Generator grounding principles
  • Generator earth fault
  • Differential schemes
  • Discussions and wrap up session

Unit Protection 2

  • Generator protection continued
  • Asynchronous running
  • Negative phase sequence
  • Over and under voltage
  • Over and under frequency
  • Reverse power
  • Excitation
  • Motor protection
  • Motor protection principles
  • Thermal considerations
  • Frequent starting
  • Locked rotor
  • Phase imbalance
  • Single phasing
  • Phase short circuit
  • Earth fault
  • Undercurrent
  • Setting of multifunctional relays
  • Wrap up session

Bus and Circuit Protection

  • Busbar protection
  • Principles of operation
  • High impedance selective schemes
  • Tutorial
  • Distance protection
  • Principles of operation
  • Characteristics
  • Arcing faults
  • Faults close to relay location
  • Causes of inaccuracy of measurement
  • Teed feeders
  • Practical study
  • Final session
  • Supervised tutorials
  • Group discussion
  • Course review